Adipose tissue-derived stem cells: characterization and potential for cardiovascular repair

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009 Nov;29(11):1723-9. Epub 2009 Jul 23.
Madonna R, Geng YJ, De Caterina R.
Institute of Cardiology, G. d’Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy.
Experimental studies have shown that cardiac transfer of unfractionated or partially purified bone marrow cells, as well as stem cells and progenitor cells derived from the bone marrow or peripheral blood, can enhance functional recovery after an acute myocardial infarction. However, the relatively low abundance, small tissue volume, difficult accessibility, and disease-related malfunction of bone marrow-derived stem cells hamper their clinical usefulness. Numerous studies have provided evidence that stromal cells derived from the adipose tissue (adipose tissue-derived stromal cells [ADSCs]) contain a population of adult multipotent mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells that can differentiate into several lineages, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes. The similarities between stem cells extracted from the bone marrow and the adipose tissue suggest the potential for the adipose tissue to act as an alternative, and perhaps preferable, cell source for repairing damaged tissues, such as the ischemic or infarcted heart. We have here reviewed the medical literature describing molecular and functional characterization, differentiation, potential role, and results obtained so far using ADSCs in tissue repair, with a particular focus on the role for ADSCs in cardiovascular repair and regeneration.
PMID: 19628786 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]